How much do you charge for your services?
While I prefer not to publish my fees on the web, I charge a reasonable
advance which is subtracted from the amount of the final invoice. I also
charge by the hour at reasonable rates. The amount is basically the same as
I have been charging for the past year but may be higher depending on the
circumstances (such as a rush job which would require me to re-prioritize my
schedule). I will be happy to send you a detailed fee schedule upon request.
Why do you consult as an expert?
I was employed as a sworn law enforcement officer for eleven years and have
considerable respect for the profession. I firmly believe, however, that
officers who knowingly violate the civil rights of citizens erode the
respect and good reputations of thousands of professional law enforcement
officers. Case review provides me a venue to interface with police and legal
practitioners while evaluating real-world police problems. Virtually
everything I have done in my professional life - my practical police
experience, formal education, book authoring, research in police matters and
college teaching in criminal justice - has paved a logical trail to expert
witnessing in police litigation cases. The stakes are high and I take very
seriously my role in the litigation process.
How do you maintain your objectivity?
I have no axe to grind with regard to police matters, policy or the criminal
justice system. I know the police profession well as I come from their
ranks, but I am willing to side with the plaintiff if the actions of the
police egregiously violate the constitutional rights of innocent citizens. I
believe law-abiding, hard-working and dedicated police officers are unfairly
and negatively impacted by the actions of rogue cops. Civil redress is one
important way to professionalize the police service. Working for both
plaintiff and defense gives me objectivity as I favor neither side.
I am a full-time, tenured college professor by trade and as such do not
require the income I make from being an expert witness as my main source of
income. My expert witnessing is strictly a sideline that I enjoy. This gives
me the freedom to pick and choose the cases with which I become involved.
Typically, when I turn down a case it is because I either consider the case
frivolous or I disagree with position of the inquiring attorneys.
How do you maintain your expertise?
One of the greatest strengths I can offer, and one that separates me from
other experts, is the fact that I am a published author. All of my
publications deal in one way or another with police work and are all
published by nationally recognized publishing houses which include Prentice
Hall (Pearson Education), CRC Press & Elsevier Publishing (associated
with Anderson Publishing Co.).
The majority of my six books are revised regularly, requiring me to be
up-to-date on issues, the law and new police procedures. Before publication,
all books undergo an extensive peer-review process by criminal justice
professionals (practitioners and academics) nationwide.
Are your books ever used outside academia?
Yes. Law enforcement agencies across the nation have adopted my texts as
training guides for their officers. For example, the San Antonio, Texas
Police Department adopted several hundred copies of my criminal
investigation book; the Dearborn Police Department requires candidates for
promotion to read my criminal investigation book in preparation for their
Sergeant's exam; the Drug Enforcement Administration had adopted copies of
my Practical Drug Enforcement book for its national library in Washington
Have you testified in federal court and been
recognized by federal (and state) courts as an expert in police procedure?
Yes. I have been qualified and have testified as an police procedures expert
in jury trials in state and federal courts in,
Arizona, Ohio, Kansas, Colorado, Indiana, Illinois, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Tennessee,
Oklahoma, Iowa, New York, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Montana, West Virginia, Arkansas, Mississippi,
Florida, Missouri, Alaska, Georgia, Connecticut, Texas and Virginia.
7. Do you have any practical experience in the development of
Yes. Not only did I develop policies for two state police organizations when
I was a law enforcement practitioner, but in 2006 I co-authored a model
policy on digital imaging for the International Association of Chief's of
Police (IACP). IACP model policies are used by police administrators
nationwide as guidelines for departmental policy development. Furthermore, I
teach a graduate-level class on the development and evaluation of standard
operating procedure that creates actual standard operating procedures for
police departments. The majority of the policies that are developed under my
supervision are adopted for implementation by law enforcement organizations.
In what states are you willing to work?
I am willing to work nationally and have been retained as an expert
throughout the United States and the District of Columbia. States in which I
have been retained as an expert include California, Arizona, Ohio, Kansas,
Colorado, Illinois, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Iowa, Wisconsin, New
Jersey, New York, Minnesota, Indiana, Alabama,
Maryland, Montana, West Virginia, Arkansas, Mississippi,
Florida, Missouri, Alaska, Georgia, Connecticut, Michigan, Texas and Virginia.
What is the percentage of defense versus plaintiff cases with
have been involved?
The estimated breakdown of cases I have been asked to
Do you prefer to testify for plaintiff or defense?
Stated simply, I have no preference as I recognize that there are
valid points to make on both sides of most issues. Having a preference would
be suggestive of a bias and I pride myself in being objective and impartial
to both sides. In a perfect world, I would like to have a 50-50 split of
defense and plaintiff cases but I have no control over which side contacts me
nor do I have control over the quality of cases that come to my attention. I
consider all cases according to their own merits.
I do receive an inquiry, I generally have a brief conversation with the
inquiring attorney and I may or may not agree to accept a case. In addition
to working with some of the most professional and prestigious plaintiffs law
firms in the nation, I have also worked on the defense side with state,
county and municipal law enforcement organizations.
Examples include: The
Chicago Police Department; The Clarksville Police Department (Tennessee);
The Boston Police Department; The Phoenix Police Department; The Chandler
Police Department (Arizona); Tunica County Sheriff's Office (Mississippi);
Onawa, Iowa Police Department; Skokie (Illinois), Police Department; Port St. Lucie Police Department (Florida); The Missouri Attorney General's Office and the Virginia State Police to name
only a few.
Have you ever turned down a case?
Yes, many. I have declined acceptance of cases based on my initial
conversation with the inquiring attorney and have also sent cases back to
attorneys after reviewing the case file and deeming them as having no merit.
I have rejected an estimated 10-15% of cases referred to me since 2001.
Is there anything in your background that would pose
credibility problems for you in court?
No. I have a clean record and background both personally and professionally.
During the course of my law enforcement career, I never had a public or
internal complaint nor was I ever disciplined in any fashion. Furthermore, I
have never been the subject of criminal or civil proceedings.
How many cases have you reviewed total as an expert?
I have reviewed and
have provided written opinions in over 250 cases since summer of 2001.
Have you faced any challenges under Daubert?
Yes! My credentials and qualifications have been scrutinized on three
occasions under Daubert. To the best of my knowledge I have successfully prevailed each time.
How many times have you testified in civil or criminal
I estimate that I have testified on over 500 occasions in both federal and
state court actions (civil and criminal). These include hearings, trials and depositions.